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Benedict De Spinoza

Dutch philosopher Benedict de Spinoza (1632-77) ranks among the 17th century's major thinkers. The Ethics, his magnum opus, was written between 1664 and 1665 and published posthumously in 1677. Both Jewish and Catholic authorities reviled the philosopher's focus on reason and defiance of tradition, but Hegel noted, "The fact is that Spinoza is made a testing point in modern philosophy, so that it may really be said: You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all."