The Northern Crusades: Second Edition


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Inspired by the Pope's call for a Holy War, Scandinavian rulers and German military monks conquered and settled Finland, Estonia and Prussia, before turning on the eastern empires of Orthodox Novgorod and pagan Lithuania. These 'Northern Crusades' are less celebrated than those in the Middle East, but they were also far more successful. Vast new territories became and remain Christian, while the central institutions of medieval Western Europe - churches, castles, manors, guilds, parliaments and feudal law codes - were ...

The Northern Crusades: Second Edition 1998, Penguin Books, London, England

ISBN-13: 9780140266535

2nd Second Edition, Revised edition

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