According to Charles Darwin in this classic botany essay, climbing plants may be divided into four classes. First, those which twine spirally round a support, and are not aided by any other movement. Secondly, those endowed with irritable organs, which when they touch any object clasp it; such organs consisting of modified leaves, branches, or flower-peduncles.On the Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants is a book by Charles Darwin first printed in book form in 1875 by John Murray. Originally, the text appeared as essay ...
According to Charles Darwin in this classic botany essay, climbing plants may be divided into four classes. First, those which twine spirally round a support, and are not aided by any other movement. Secondly, those endowed with irritable organs, which when they touch any object clasp it; such organs consisting of modified leaves, branches, or flower-peduncles.On the Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants is a book by Charles Darwin first printed in book form in 1875 by John Murray. Originally, the text appeared as essay in the 9th volume of the Journal of the Linnean Society, therefore the first edition in book form is actually called the 'second edition, revised.' Illustrations were drawn by Charles Darwin's son, George Darwin.Following the Origin of Species Darwin set out to produce evidence for his theory of natural selection. Initially Darwin spent much time in studying plants to achieve this aim. This book stands second in line to his first work on plants, On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects. (1862)This work is subdivided into chapters concentrating on a particular type of climber which he divided into four main classes but Darwin, in this volume, concentrates on the two main classes, the twining plants and the leaf climbers (divided into two sub-divisions: leaf climbers and tendril bearers)The following comprise the chapters: 1. Twining plants 2. Leaf climbers 3 & 4.Tendril bearers 5. Hook and Root climbers.Charles Robert Darwin, FRS FRGS FLS FZS (/???dQ???rwjn/; 12 February 1809 - 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist,  best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.[I] His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now widely accepted, and considered a foundational concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species. By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations, and it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life.Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh; instead, he helped to investigate marine invertebrates. Studies at the University of Cambridge (Christ's College) encouraged his passion for natural science. His five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's conception of gradual geological change, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations, and in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority. He was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.
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