Before Alex Hailey's Roots there was Courlander's The African, which chronicles the experiences of a young African boy, Hwesuhunu, who is kidnapped from his homeland. His story recreates the horrors of the Middle Passage and the degradation of slavery.

The African 1993, Henry Holt & Company, New York, NY

ISBN-13: 9780805030006

Owl Book edition

Trade paperback

African 1977, Crown Publishing Group (NY)

ISBN-13: 9780517506806