Before Alex Hailey's Roots there was Courlander's The African, which chronicles the experiences of a young African boy, Hwesuhunu, who is kidnapped from his homeland. His story recreates the horrors of the Middle Passage and the degradation of slavery.

The African 1993, Henry Holt & Company, New York, NY

ISBN-13: 9780805030006

Owl Book edition

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African 1977, Crown Publishing Group (NY)

ISBN-13: 9780517506806

Hardcover

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The African 1970, New English Library, London

ISBN-13: 9780450006111

Paperback

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