1 Introduction: Fundamentals of Nuclear Physics 1.1 Natural Stable and Radioactive Isotopes 1.2 Nuclear Reactions and Sources of Radioactivity 1.3 Laws of Radioactive Decay and Attenuation of Radiation 1.4 Measurement Techniques and Health Hazards Part I Use of Nuclear Techniques for Determination of Soil Properties 2 Methods Based on the Absorption of the Gamma-Ray Beam by Matter 2.1 Main Principles 2.2 Transmission of Narrow and Broad Gamma-Ray Beams through Matter 2.3 Mass Absorption ...
1 Introduction: Fundamentals of Nuclear Physics 1.1 Natural Stable and Radioactive Isotopes 1.2 Nuclear Reactions and Sources of Radioactivity 1.3 Laws of Radioactive Decay and Attenuation of Radiation 1.4 Measurement Techniques and Health Hazards Part I Use of Nuclear Techniques for Determination of Soil Properties 2 Methods Based on the Absorption of the Gamma-Ray Beam by Matter 2.1 Main Principles 2.2 Transmission of Narrow and Broad Gamma-Ray Beams through Matter 2.3 Mass Absorption Coefficients of Rocks 2.4 Sensitivity of the Method 2.5 Deviations from the Mean Density 2.6 Determination of Soil Density by Gamma-Ray Absorption 2.7 Studies of Moisture Content Dynamics in Soil 2.8 Determination of the Amount of Water Stored in Snow Cover 2.9 Studies of the Evaporation Process 3 The Gamma-Ray Back-Scattering Method 3.1 Principles and Range of Application 3.2 Optimal Parameters of Measuring Probe 3.3 Design of Gamma-Ray Density Gauges and the Range of their Application 3.3.1 Surface Type Gamma Ray Density Gauges 3.3.2 Gamma-Ray Density Gauges Used in Wells 3.3.3 Gamma-Ray Density Gauges for Direct Insertion into the Ground 3.4 Technological Aspects of Measurement and Calibration 4 Neutron Back-Scattering Method 4.1 Principles and Range of Application 4.2 Optimal Parameters of Measuring Probe 4.2.1 Sensitivity of the Method 4.2.2 Maximum Working Depth 4.2.3 Effects of Parameters of the Medium 4.3 Design of Neutron Moisture Gauges 4.4 Possible Errors in the Moisture Content Measured by the Neutron Method 4.5 Calibration of Neutron Moisture Gauges Part II Penetration Logging Techniques 5 Penetration Logging Methods and Equipment 5.1 Essence of Penetration Logging Techniques and Conditions of Application 5.2 Experimental Penetration Logging Rig SUGP-10 5.3 The Penetration Logging Rig and Equipment SPK 5.4 The Submerged Penetration Logging Rig PSPK-69 Mounted on the Exploration Catamaran Type Ship "Geologist-1" 6 Theoretical Basis of Penetration Logging Tests 6.1 Solutions Based on the Theory of Ultimate Equilibrium 6.2 Imbedding of Spherical Probe into an Infinite Elastic Medium 6.3 Imbedding of Spherical Probe into Elastic - Creeping Medium 6.4 Two-Dimensional Axis-Symmetric Problem of Relaxation Stress 6.5 Conditions for Measuring Ground Parameters by Static Penetration 7 Experimental Studies and Interpretation of Penetration Logging Data 7.1 Density, Moisture, Porosity, Groundwater Level 7.2 Influence of Sounding Parameters on Ground Resistance and Friction 7.3 Modulus of Ground Compressibility 7.4 Ground Shear and Rheology Parameters 7.5 Normal Pressure 7.6 Lithology Stratification 8 Application of Penetration Logging Techniques in Geoengineering Exploration 8.1Geo
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