Sei-Kwan Sohn. Very good. xi, , 113,  pages. Footnotes. Bibliography. Index. Cover has slight wear and soiling. Sadako Ogata (born 16 September 1927) is a Japanese academic, diplomat, author, administrator, and professor emeritus at Sophia University. She is widely known as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) from 1991 to 2000, as well as in her capacities as the Chairman of the UNICEF Executive Board and as the President of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). She was a lecturer of the International Christian University (ICU), and is now the advisor of the Executive Committee of the Model United Nations (present day Japan Model United Nations, JMUN) as the founder of the Model United Nations in Japan. The main purpose of this study is to arrive at a better understanding of the foreign policies of the United States and Japan. The normalization of relations of the two countries with the People's Republic of China offers a challenging case to compare the basic assumptions of the foreign policies of the two countries and the decision-making process involved. Starting from a closely coordinated position to contain the spread of communism in Asia, the United States and Japan gradually moved away from their rigid stance to seek rapprochement with China. The fact that the United States and Japan followed a parallel course in the 1970s does not imply that they had a common strategy or that they shared a basic approach toward China. To begin with, Japan had established economic and cultural ties with China but had refrained from moving further because of its political security relations with the United States. For Japan, the China issue was intimately connected to the question of alignment with the United States. To the United States, China was part of the global security issue and, therefore, was closely linked to U.S. strategic rivalry with the Soviet Union. The fact that normalization was brought into the open by the unilateral action of President Richard Nixon greatly strained ensuing relations between the United States and Japan. For both the United States and Japan, normalization with China was a highly divisive issue in domestic politics. While sustained pressure in the United States came from the rightist pro-Nationalist groups, that in Japan was exerted by the leftist pro-China organizations. Behind the respective groups were systematic maneuvers by the Nationalists and the Communists to turn political developments to their favor.
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