MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS FOR ECONOMISTS by R. G. D. ALLEN. Originally published in 1937. FOREWORD; THIS book, which is based on a series of lectures given at the London School of Economics annually since 1931, aims at providing a course of pure mathematics developed in the directions most useful to students of economics. At each stage the mathematical methods described are used in the elucidation of problems of economic theory. Illustrative examples are added to all chapters and it is hoped that the reader, in solving them, ...
MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS FOR ECONOMISTS by R. G. D. ALLEN. Originally published in 1937. FOREWORD; THIS book, which is based on a series of lectures given at the London School of Economics annually since 1931, aims at providing a course of pure mathematics developed in the directions most useful to students of economics. At each stage the mathematical methods described are used in the elucidation of problems of economic theory. Illustrative examples are added to all chapters and it is hoped that the reader, in solving them, will become familiar with the mathematical tools and with their applications to concrete economic problems. The method of treatment rules out any attempt at a systematic development of mathematical economic theory but the essentials of such a theory are to be found either in the text or in the examples. I hope that the book will be useful to readers of different types. The earlier chapters are intended primarily for the student with no mathematical equipment other than that obtained, possibly many years ago, from a matriculation course. Such a student may need to accustom himself to the application of the elementary methods before proceeding to the more powerful processes described in the later chapters. The more advanced reader may use the early sections for purposes of revision and pass on quickly to the later work. The experienced mathematical economist may find the book as a whole of service for reference and discover new points in some of the chapters. I have received helpful advice and criticism from many mathe maticians and economists. I am particularly indebted to Professor A. L. Bowley and to Dr. J. Marschak and the book includes numerous modifications made as a result of their suggestions on reading the original manuscript. I am also indebted to Mr. G. J. Nash who has read the proofs and has detected a number of slips in my construction of the examples. R. G. D. ALLEN THE LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS October, 1937. Contents include: FOREWORD ----------v A SHORT BIBLIOGRAPHY - ..... xiv THE USE OF GREEK LETTERS IN MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS - - ...... xvi I. NUMBERS AND VARIABLES -------1 1.1 Introduction ---------1 1.2 Numbers of various types ------3 1.3 The real number system -------6 1.4 Continuous and discontinuous variables ... - 7 1.5 Quantities and their measurement ..... 9 1.0 Units of measurement - - - - - - - 13 1.7 Derived quantities - - - - - - - - 14 1.8 The location of points in space - - - - - 1G 1.9 Va viable points and their co-ordinates 20 EXAMPLES 1 The measurement of quantities graphical methods ---------23 . JpOJ ACTIONS AND THEIR DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION 28 2.1 Definition and examples of functions 28 2.2 The graphs of functions - - - - - - - 32 2.3 Functions and curves - - - - - - - 3 5 2.4 Classification of functions - - - - - - 38 2.5 Function types - - - - - - - - 41 2.6 The symbolic representation of functions of any form - 45 2.7 The diagrammatic method - - - - - - 48 2.8 The solution of equations in one variable 50 2.9 Simultaneous equations in two variables 54 EXAMPLES II Functions and graphs the solutionjof equa- tions ......... 57 III. ELEMENTARY ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY 61 3.1 Introduction ......... 61 3.2 The gradient of a straight line ..... 03 3.3 The equation of a straight line - - - 66 viii CONTENTS CHAP. 3.4 The parabola 09 3.5 The rectangular hyperbola - - - - - - 72 3.6 The circle 75 3.7 Curve classes and curve systems . - ... 76 3.8 An economic problem in analytical geometry 80 EXAMPLES III--The straight line curves and curve systems 82 IV...
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