In the late nineteenth century in Europe, and to some extent in the United States, the Jewish upper middle class"particularly the more affluent families"began to enter the cultural spheres of public life, especially in major cities such as Vienna, Berlin, Paris, New York, and London. While many aspects of society were closed to them, theater, the visual arts, music, and art publication were far more inviting, especially if they involved challenging aspects of modernity that might be less attractive to Gentile society. ...

Jewish Cultural Aspirations 2012, Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, in

ISBN-13: 9781557536358