It is now becoming widely recognized that the clinical manifestations of even the most simple single-gene disorders are affected by both other genetic factors and the environment experienced by the patient. For complex diseases, such as diabetes or coronary artery disease, these factors may completely mask or mimic the underlying genetic aetiology - the classical problems of penetrance, expressivity and phenocopy.

From Genotype to Phenotype 2004, Routledge

ISBN-13: 9781872748627