Excerpt: ...To obtain it in drams, divide the latter number by 17,3 as 1 dram is equal to 17,3 deniers. Suppose we find 20 cocoon ends in a thread of silk: add 1/3, and we have 26-2/3 deniers, which, divided by 17,3 make 1,54 drams. As silk is always more or less uneven, it is safer to count the cocoon fibers of several threads and to take average ...Read MoreExcerpt: ...To obtain it in drams, divide the latter number by 17,3 as 1 dram is equal to 17,3 deniers. Suppose we find 20 cocoon ends in a thread of silk: add 1/3, and we have 26-2/3 deniers, which, divided by 17,3 make 1,54 drams. As silk is always more or less uneven, it is safer to count the cocoon fibers of several threads and to take average thereof. It requires the experience of years to judge with any degree of certainty as to the origin and quality of silk, whether it be "classical," "extra," "sublime," etc. There are machines wherewith to ascertain exactly the twist, that is, the number of turns the silk has received in the throwing process. In the dyeing we distinguish two great classes, of which the names themselves give a good definition. "Bright" has a brilliant luster, while "souple" has more of a dull, subdued appearance. To find out whether the silk has been weighted in the dyeing process, we may compare it with other silk of which the exact conditions are known, or we may burn a small quantity of it. Unweighted silk does not burn readily and leaves a residue of white ashes, while heavy weighted silk burns lively, leaving black, charry ashes. pg 70 4. REED CALCULATION We count the number of repeats of the weave in a given space, generally 1/4 or 1/2 inch, and multiply this with the number of threads one repeat contains, which gives us the reduction of the warp. Suppose we had a taffeta, which, as we know, has only 2 ends to a repeat, and counted 30 interlacings per 1/4 inch on one pick; we would have 60 threads per 1/4 inch or 240 per one inch. In this case the reed may be 80 by 3 or 60 by 4. Another instance: In an 8-shaft satin we count 10 warp-threads, which bind on the same pick in 1/4 inch; this, multiplied by 8, equals 80 ends per 1/4, or 320 per one inch; the reed will be an 80 with 4 in a dent or a 64 by 5. In short, the number of the reed is found by dividing the number of warp-threads that are to go in one dent, in the number ofRead Less
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