THE SECOND By Hilaire Belloc Preserve tfie MLastery of the Sea 9 Jamess instructions to his heir as King of England J. B. Lippincott Company 192,8 IKT DEDICATED TO R. B. CUNNINGHAME-GRAHAM PREFACE THIS essay is not a biography, still less a chronicle. It is an attempt to portray a character of capital interest to English and European History, of ...
THE SECOND By Hilaire Belloc Preserve tfie MLastery of the Sea 9 Jamess instructions to his heir as King of England J. B. Lippincott Company 192,8 IKT DEDICATED TO R. B. CUNNINGHAME-GRAHAM PREFACE THIS essay is not a biography, still less a chronicle. It is an attempt to portray a character of capital interest to English and European History, of which our academic historians give but a caricature. Were it either a biography or a chronicle, a great mass of detail would have been added, with which the book has no concern. Were it a biography, it would have been essential to describe all the main facts of the subjects life were it a chronicle, it would have had to include a conspectus of the world contemporary with James at home and abroad and to give the sequence of events in a regular and dated order. Neither of. these tasks appears in the pages that follow. Thus, James was conspicuous and successful as a British Aomiral in two great naval engagements the most important of those fought by the fleet which he had created, and the chief actions of the century. I have given the story of one only, as typical of his attitude in command. He was attacked and betrayed by a good score of men in the small clique of great fortunes all allied by marriage which destroyed the ancient monarchy of the English. I have described but two, as typical of their set, Shaftesbury and his brother-in-law Sunderland. He presided over, and in great part initiated, the making 6f the British Navy his chief work. That in itself would be material for a volume. I have given it but a chapter, and in that chapter have emphasized but two main points his new corps of professional officers j his new idea of a National Fleetindependent of pressed merchant auxiliaries. But these are sufficient to show his creative role iii the setting up of that service. The characters and careers of his numerous vii PREFACE mistresses would be essential to a life I have concerned myself only with the very difficult problem of his own emotions in such amours, for that is the point of character. I have thus deliberately selected, because it is surely by such selection of special points in connexion with his temperament, achievement and failures that he can be best presented and, I think, in no other way. But that he should be presented truly is of the first value in understanding England during and sincd his day. The Revolution of 1688 completed the work of the Refor mation. From it dates the Modern Aristocratic England which is nearly all the nineteenth century and our own can conceive of as English. To know the man whose failure produced that Revolution is a thing the nine teenth century and our own has hardly attempted. It is high time the attempt should be made. I trust that in doing so I have exaggerated neither his vice, nor as is the temptation in face of our academic text-books his virtues neither his capacities, which were great and remarkable, nor his deficiencies which were startlingly pronounced and, combined with certain high moral quali ties, led to his ruin. HILAIRE BELLOC Kings Land Shipley Horsham CONTENTS PREFACE Vil I THE CHARACTER 13 II THE CIRCUMSTANCE 30 III THE FIRST EXILE 58 IV ADMIRALTY 8 1 V THE CONVERSION I08 VI THE CONFLICT 139 VII THE ORDEAL 175 VIII DERRY AND THE BOYNE 227 IX THE END 268 NOTE I ON THE NUMERICAL SITUATION OF CATHOLICISM IN ENGLAND DURING THE ATTEMPT AT TOLERATION UNDER JAMES II28O NOTE II CONSULTATION OF THE COUNTIES AND BOROUGHS, LATE 1687 287 NOTE III ON THE BATTLE OF THE BOYNE 293 INDEX 295 FRONTISPIECE PORTRAIT OF JAMES II, AS DUKE OF YORK Reproduced from the painting by John Greenhill, in the Dulwich College Picture Gallery, by kind per mission of the Governors. JAMES THE SECOND
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