This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1911 Excerpt: ... members of this group appear on the opposite page. 4. Oxygen Derivatives: (e) Carboxylic Acids--The importance of this class for the ...Read MoreThis historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1911 Excerpt: ... members of this group appear on the opposite page. 4. Oxygen Derivatives: (e) Carboxylic Acids--The importance of this class for the determination of constitution and other problems is obviously very great, and consequently a very large number of syntheses have been devised; we have only space to refer to a few, such as oxidation of alcohols or aldehydes, saponification of nitriles Dumas and Frankland and Kolbe (1847), acetoacetic and malonic ester syntheses (cf. 5), and metal-alkyl syntheses (Na + C02+C6H5Br, Kekule 1866; finely-divided silver on halogen fatty acids, J. Wislicenus, 1868; zinc on chloracetic and oxalic esters, Fittig and Daimler, 1887; zinc on ketones and iodacetic esters, Reformatski, 1887, used in synthesis of citric acid, Lawrence, 1897); Grignard reaction. Perkins' reaction for the preparation of ethylenic acids by heating a mixture of aldehyde, sodium fatty acid salt and acid 1868 Hofmann. 1-4 Scheele (alcohol oxidation); 1821 Dobereiner (isolated aldehyde ammonia); 1835 Liebig (composition and name); Polymers: metaldehyde (Liebig, 1835), and paraldehyde (Fehling, 1838). 1832 Liebig. 18g Kekule (Cf. also the sugars, chapter viii.) Composition Known to alchemists as the" quintessence' by Liebig. 1856 Debus (alcohol and nitric acid). 1887 v. Pechmann (from isonitrosoketones). 1889 Claisen (condensation of ketones and acetic esters). 1888 Combes and Gustavson (aluminium chloride on acetyl chloride). 1831 Liebig and Wohler (from amygdalin). 1839 Piria (oxidation of salicin). 1874 Tiemann and Haarmann (artificial preparation). 1838 Woskresenski (from quinic acid). Named by Berzelius. 1869 Hermann. 1835 Laurent; 1861 Anderson. 1889 v. Pechmann (condensation of diacetyl). anhydride (1868, coumaric; 1875, cinnamic acid) has...Read Less
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