ISBN: 0548588368 / ISBN-13: 9780548588369
A Manual of Normal Histology and Organography
by Charles Hill
This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from ... Show synopsis This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1909 edition. Excerpt: ...more layers of irregular interstitial cells intervene between the apices of the pear-shaped cells. The interstitial cells divide regularly by karyokinesis and are then crowded to the surface to replace the superficial cells that normally exfoliate. There are no glands in the bladder, but solid cell projections are sometimes found that resemble glands. The bladder is a part of the allantois, a vesicular evagination of the hind-gut. The bladder epithelium, therefore, is of hypodermic origin, while that of the ureter is from the mesoderm. A vascular submucosa intervenes between the mucosa and the muscular is. This is a thin layer of areolar tissue, but sufficient to give the mucosa apparent elasticity and enable it to move upon the muscular is. The muscular coat consists of smooth muscle fibers which may be divided into bundles of outer longitudinal fibers, a middle strong circular layer, and an imperfect inner longitudinal or diagonal stratum. At the urethral opening the middle layer is thickened to form a sphincter muscle, according to some authors. The bladder musculature forms a basketwork fabric, and when much distended intervals may arise in its walls which become points of weakness through which the mucosa may protrude, when the organ is said to be sacculated. Vessels and Nerves.--The bladder is supplied with blood from the superior and inferior vesicle arteries, and in the female also from branches of the uterine artery. The veins form large plexuses, particularly around the neck, sides and base. They eventually drain into the internal iliac. The nerve supply is from the third, fourth, and sometimes the second sacral nerves, and from the hypogastric plexus of the sympathetic. The latter are nearly all non-medullated. t CHAPTER VIII....