This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1916 Excerpt: ...converter. Up to this point the product is a simple, molten cast iron, which, if run into molds, would form the common, commercial cast or pig iron used in the foundry.. From this point on the process is one of converting the cast iron into steel by decarbonizing the molten metal in the converter, and finally by ...
This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1916 Excerpt: ...converter. Up to this point the product is a simple, molten cast iron, which, if run into molds, would form the common, commercial cast or pig iron used in the foundry.. From this point on the process is one of converting the cast iron into steel by decarbonizing the molten metal in the converter, and finally by reintroducing the necessary amount of carbon and manganese for the required composition and quality. 53. The Bessemer Converter. The Bessemer converter is a pear or barrel-shaped vessel made of boiler plates, holding ten to fifteen tons of metal, lined with refractory material and carried on trunnions. Through one of the trunnions, which is hollow, an air blast is conveyed to the bottom of the converter. Through the openings in the tuyere or bottom plate of the converter the blast of air is forced through the molten pig iron. The air passing through the molten mass produces great heat; the oxygen combines with the carbon and silicon, and the heat caused by their combustion is sufficient, not only to keep the metal in the liquid state, but to increase the temperature about 700 to 800 higher than at the beginning of the "blow." The flames and resulting gases escape from the mouth of the converter, and after eight or ten minutes the impurities are practically burned out. This is recognized by the color of the flame. The almost pure iron which is left after the impurities are exhausted is comparatively soft, and to obtain the required degree of hardness and toughness a rich alloy, such as spiegeleisen or ferromanganese, is added, which reintroduces the necessary amount of carbon and manganese. Spiegeleisen is a pig iron containing about 12 per cent of manganese, the proportion being such as to introduce into the metal in the converter the prop...
New. Here, available once more in reprint, is one of the most enlightening books written on the blacksmith's craft. Called a "bible" of the trade by many because of its wonderful "teaching quality, " it has been used by generations of blacksmiths as the seminal text on forging. Designed primarily to help the beginner in learning both the theory and practice of forge work through self-instruction, the chapters on advanced forging and art forging provide directions for the more difficult types of work suitable for the skilled blacksmith. The book has excellent sections on tool manipulation, tool-smithing, basic exercises, and ornamental work, including the forming of flowers. There is the added bonus of a section on repoussÚČ which is rare in books on forging, especially those printed in English. Throughout, Schwarzkopf stresses the importance of learning solid fundamentals and proper tooling, as well as the proper mind set. The illustrations are easy to follow and the explanations are concise and to the point. As the interest in blacksmithing continues to expand, books such as this are an invaluable tool to help beginners and craftsmen alike broaden their metalworking vocabulary.
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